Sažetak, Toyota Kata – Mike Rother

Brojne tvrtke primjenjuju metode, alate i procese koji su izašli iz Toyotinih tvornica. Više ili manje uspješno. Ali nikada u potpunosti. Nedostaje kritična komponenta koju nije lako niti prepoznati, niti definirati a niti replicirati u svom okruženju. Ta komponenta je Toyota Kata. Ta komponenta je kultura koja se godinama gradila i kontinuirano se unaprjeđuje u Toyoti. Toyota Kata je kultura kontinuirane promjene a i sama je predmetom kontinuirane promjene. Autor kroz ovu knjigu pokušava prenijeti svoja saznanja što je Toyota Kata, kako se provodi i kako se kontinuirano unaprjeđuje i uči. Ne nadajte se da će se u knjizi naći step-by-step kako implementirati Toyota Kata kulturu u godinu dana u svoju organizaciju. Kultura Toyote gradi se od 1950-te godine i, prema Kata kulturi, nikada nije gotova. Kontinuirano se unaprjeđuje. Ali to ne znaći da nije moguće primijeniti prakse izgradnje kulture. Naposljetku, Toyota Kata je kultura kontinuiranog unaprjeđenja i eksperimentiranja. Fenomenalna knjiga, osnova agilnih principa.

Toyota Kata

Foreword

“In this book, Mike Rother penetrates Toyota’s management methods to a depth never reached before”

“The central message of Toyota Kata is to describe and explain Toyota’s process for managing people”

“As far back as 1992, I learned from President Fujio Cho and members of his management team at Georgetown that Toyota steadfastly believes that organizational routines for improvement and adaptation, not quantitative/financial targets, define the pathway to competitive advantage and long-term organizational survival.”

Introduction

“This book describes two particular behavior routines, habits or pattens of thinking and conducting oneself, that are practiced over and over everyday at Toyota. In Japan such routines are called Kata.”

Part I – The Situation

“The key point was not the new production techniques themselves, but rather that Toyota changes over time that it develops new production techniques while many other manufacturers do not”

“Small, incremental steps let us learn along the way, make adjustments, and discover the path to where we want to be”

“Relying on technical innovation alone often provides only temporary competitive advantage”

“Cost and quality competitiveness tends to result from accumulation of many small steps over time”

“Relying on periodic improvements and innovation alone – only improving when we make a special effort or campaign conceals a system that is static and vulnerable”

“Let’s agree on definition of continuous improvement: it means that you are improving all processes every day. And this improvement continues even if the numbers have already been met”

“We cannot leave a process alone and expect high quality, low cost, and stability”

“Toyota considers the improvement capability of all the people in an organization the strength of the company”

“Digging deeper, there is a further definition and translation for the word [kata]: A way of keeping two things in alignment or synchronization with one another”

Part II – Know Yourself

“Thus, by definition, workshops are not at all the same as continuous improvements”

“Value-stream mapping is not intended to be a method for process improvement”

“An action-item list is a listing of multiple improvement ideas and action items to be implemented at a process”

“… consider that Toyota teaches people to try to change only one thing at a time, and then to check the result against the expected result”

“The negative result of improvement equals eliminate waste thinking is twofold: we cannot discern what is important to improve, and we tend to maximize the efficiency of one area at the expense of another, shifting wastes from one to another rather than optimizing and synchronizing the whole”

“In other words, it is acceptable and perhaps even desirable for the vision to be a seeming dilema and thus a challenge”

“At Toyota, CBA is used less for deciding whether something should be done, and more for deciding how to do it”

“Remember, the ability of your company to be competitive and survive lies not su much in the solutions themselves, but in the capability of the people in your organization to understand a situation and develop solutions”

Part III – The Improvement Kata: How Toyota Continuously Improves

“Having a target condition is so important for effective process improvement and management that Toyota will usually not start trying to improve or move forward before a target condition has been defined”

“A target condition describes a desired future state”

“Takt time is the rate of customer demand for the group or family of products produced by one process”

“If Kanban is a tool for process improvement, then it makes sense to introduce pull systems on a small scale first and expand step by step as we learn more about and improve the relevant processes”

“Keep in mind, by the way, that the Kanban system does not cause problems, it only reveals them”

“It is the striving for the target condition via the routine of the improvement kata that characterizes what we have been calling lean manufacturing“.

“In contrast, a target condition – that is, a target pattern – creates a challenge that depersonalizes a situation and brings peoples efforts into alignment”

“A target is an outcome, and a target condition is a description of a process operating in a way – in a pattern – required to achieve the desired outcome”

“A target condition normally includes stretch aspects that go beyond current process capability. We want to get there, but we cannot yet see how”

“As you define a target condition, you should not yet know exactly how you will achieve it. This is normal, for otherwise you would be in the implementation mode”

“If you want true process improvement, there often needs to be some stretch”

“I call an initial, vague target condition a challenge and once a sufficient detail has been added I call it a target condition”

“However, in my experience a one-year time frame is too long for target condition to be effective, and such long-term target conditions should be supplemented with interim target conditions”

“The procedure of steps of experimentation are summarized in the well-know Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle”

“Toyota later added the words Go and See to the middle of the PDCA wheel because Toyota considers this to be important in all steps of PDCA”

“To function in this way, the improvement kata should be depersonalized and have a positive, challenging, no-blame feeling”

“We know that the vast majority of problems are caused by the system within which people work, rather than by the individuals themselves. Therefore, Toyota maintains a no-blame focus on the process, instead on the people around the problem”

“In contrast, Toyota states clearly that no problem is too small for a response. For an organization to be consciously adaptive, it would ideally recognize abnormalities and change as they arise and are still small and easy to grasp”

“The five questions are a summary of Toyota’s approach for moving toward a target condition, and are perhaps the most useful information in this book, now that you know what they mean

  1. What is the target condition? (the challenge)
  2. What is the actual condition now?
  3. What obstacles are preventing you from reaching the target condition? Which one are you addressing now?
  4. What is your next step? (start of next PDCA cycle)
  5. When can we go and see what we have learned for taking that step?”

“Most of the effort of problem solving at Toyota is placed in grasping the situation – deeply understanding the conditions that led to the problem – as opposed to hunting for solutions”

“Keep in mind the second law of thermodynamics, or entropy, which states that even if we follow the work standard, a work process will tend to slip toward chaos if we leave it alone”

Part IV – The Coaching Kata: How Toyota Teaches The Improvement Kata

“Toyota’s managers and leaders work hard every day to both teach it [kata] and to keep improvement going in an effective manner”

“Toyota’s managers and leaders develop people who in turn improve processes through the improvement kata”

“Developing people in this manner is a part of manager’s or supervisor’s evaluation, bonus, promotion, and salary”

“Classroom training alone, even if it includes simulations, at best only achieves awareness. We can only discern what people are actually learning and how they are thinking – and hence what they need to learn and practice next – as they try to apply in real life what they are being thought”

“If a mentor does not have firsthand understanding of the situation, then they cannot lead”

“To really solve a problem, you have to understand why it is happening”

“Although the mentor is often a tough customer who leads the mentee through the problem solving via questioning – ultimately the mentee is the person who must analyze the problem and develop the countermeasure”

“Management does not need to bring solutions to problems. What management should bring into the organization is a kata for how people should act when faced with a situation”

Part V – Replication: What About Other Companies

“The improvement kata, the means by which processes are improved, is a way of experimenting, and we can apply it to almost any sort of the process”

“The field of psychology is clear on this [how we learn]: we learn habits, automatic reactions, by repeatedly practicing behaviors”

“Much of what we do is routinized and habitual. Repeated practice – conditioning – creates neural pathways and, over time, and organization’s culture”

“This is the most important advice in this chapter: to develop improvement kata behavior in you organization, you should utilize and follow the improvement kata in this development process itself”

“In this regard, I encourage you to keep in mind: if the learner hasn’t learned, the teacher hasn’t thought”

“In is important that we can measure our progress and in particular, lack of progress. We learn the most from our mistakes”

Dodatne poveznice

GoodReads: Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results

Amazon: Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results

Book Depository: Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results

Video materijali

YouTube: Introduction to Toyota Kata

YouTube: What is Toyota Kata and Why Should You Care?

YouTube: The Improvement Kata in 10 Minutes

Preuzimanje sažetka

PDF: Toyota Kata - PDF

MOBI: Toyota Kata - MOBI

EPUB: Toyota Kata - EPUB

 

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